Behind the stripes: female football officials' experiences

ECU Author/Contributor (non-ECU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
John C. Barnes (Creator)
Heidi Nordstrom (Creator)
Stacy Warner (Creator)
East Carolina University (ECU )
Web Site:

Abstract: "This study focused on the work-related experiences of eight female American football officials. The purpose was to gain a holistic perspective of women’s experiences working in the male-dominated career of sport officiating. Previous literature has examined sports officials in regards to retention, recruitment, and safety, but relatively little research has focused specifically on female football officials. Using a phenomenological approach, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. After thoroughly analysing the data using open, axial, and selective coding methods, the following four themes emerged: 1) gendered experiences; 2) sense of community; 3) mentoring; 4) passion for officiating and football. The findings lend practical insight that can be used to assist officiating associations with their recruitment and retention, as well as add to the literature on gender equity in sport and on females working in male-dominated careers."

Additional Information

"Nordstrom, H., Warner, S. and Barnes, J.C. (2016) ‘Behind the stripes: female football officials’ experiences’, Int. J. Sport Management and Marketing, Vol. 16, Nos. 3/4/5/6, pp.259–279."
Language: English
Date: 2016
Gender equity, American football, Community, Mentoring, Gender roles, male-dominated, Sport officiating

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