Adult AD/HD, metamemory, and self-regulation in context

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Laura E. Knouse (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:
Arthur Anastopoulos

Abstract: AD/HD in adulthood is associated with ongoing academic impairments. A metacognitive theoretical framework was used to review the extant literature on cognitive deficits in AD/HD and to construct laboratory measures of metacognitive monitoring and control relevant to educational settings. Reviewed evidence of deficits in metacognitive control was strong while evidence of problems in monitoring was equivocal. Two sets of laboratory memory tasks were used to address questions of metamemory monitoring and control, as well as to examine whether a highly unstructured task would be incrementally more difficult for adults with AD/HD due to greater demands on executive functioning. Sixty-eight adults with and without AD/HD were assessed using structured interviews and self-reports and completed laboratory tasks, interviews, and questionnaires tapping metamemory. Adults with AD/HD were just as accurate as the comparison group at predicting their memory performance, despite remembering fewer words on the unstructured task. Groups did not differ in the relationship between their predictions and their study behavior (study time, item selection) nor in the amount of time they spent studying items. However, adults with AD/HD were less likely to use a self-testing strategy during an unstructured task and were less likely to report associating word pairs during a structured, computerized task. Results suggest that adults with AD/HD may not be impaired in metacognitive monitoring during a task, but they are less likely to use effective study strategies than adults without AD/HD, especially when tasks are unstructured. Several targets for intervention are discussed and it is suggested that future research include assessments of self-efficacy, self-reported study behavior, and methods to investigate study plan formulation versus execution.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2008
ADHD, Metacognition, Memory, Strategies, Adults, Cognition
Attention-deficit disorder in adults.
Study skills.

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