Independent and Interdependent Group Contingencies: Smoothing the Rough Waters

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Craig S. Cashwell, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site:

Abstract: Independent and interdependent group contingencies have many applied advantages for influencing behaviors in school settings. However, there are negative side effects associated with these group oriented contingencies. A scenario is presented that illustrates some negative side effects of independent and interdependent group oriented contingencies. Specific recommendations for altering group oriented contingencies to reduce these negative side effects and increase the probability that teachers will use these contingencies to increase students' academic performance and prosocial behaviors follows the scenario.

Additional Information

Special Services in the Schools, 12, 61-78.
Language: English
Date: 1996
Behavior modification, School, Group behavior, Group rewards and punishments, Teacher and student, Student behavior, Academic achievement

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