Cross-National Heterogeneity in Retail Spending: Evidence from Longitudinal Country-Level Data

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Nir B. Kshetri, Professor (Creator)
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
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Abstract: Economies worldwide vary greatly in terms of how much their consumers spend on various types of retail activities. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the regulatory characteristics as well as the natures and strategies of businesses are related to retail spending. We employed random effect time series cross sectional (TSCS) models linear in parameters for forty eight economies using annual data for the 1999-2008 period. The results provided strong support that economic freedom, foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow and access and availability as measured by the density of retail stores positively affect retail spending. We also found that tax and social security contributions as a proportion of the GDP is positively related to per capita grocery retail spending.

Additional Information

Language: English
Date: 2012
Retail spending, FDI, economic freedom, time series cross sectional (TSCS) models, retail density

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