An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment

ECU Author/Contributor (non-ECU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Claude Hughes (Creator)
Saal Frederick S. vom (Creator)
East Carolina University (ECU )
Web Site:

Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is the monomer used to manufacture polycarbonate plastic the resin lining of cans and other products with global capacity in excess of 6.4 billion lb/year. Because the ester bonds in these BPA-based polymers are subject to hydrolysis leaching of BPA has led to widespread human exposure. A recent report prepared by the Harvard Center for Risk Analysis and funded by the American Plastics Council concluded that evidence for low-dose effects of BPA is weak on the basis of a review of only 19 studies; the report was issued after a delay of 2.5 years. A current comprehensive review of the literature reveals that the opposite is true. As of December 2004 there were 115 published in vivo studies concerning low-dose effects of BPA and 94 of hese report significant effects. In 31 publications with vertebrate and invertebrate animals significant effects occurred below the predicted “safe” or reference dose of 50 μg/kg/day BPA. An estrogenic ode of action of BPA is confirmed by in vitro experiments which describe disruption of cell function at 10– 12 M or 0.23 ppt. Nonetheless chemical manufacturers continue to discount these published findings because no industry-funded studies have reported significant effects of low doses of BPA although > 90% of government-funded studies have reported significant effects. Some industry-funded studies have ignored the results of positive controls and many studies eporting no significant effects used a strain of rat that is inappropriate for the study of estrogenic responses. We propose that a new risk assessment for BPA is needed based on a) the extensive new iterature reporting adverse effects in animals at doses below the current reference dose; b) the high rate of leaching of BPA from food and beverage containers leading to widespread human exposure; c) reports that the median BPA level in human blood and tissues including in human fetal blood is higher than the level that causes adverse effects in mice; and d) recent epidemiologic evidence that BPA is related to disease in women. Originally published Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 113 No. 8 Aug 2005

Additional Information

Environmental Health Perspectives. 113:8(August 2005) p. 926-933.
Language: English
Date: 2011
biosphenol A, dose response, endocrine disruptors, low dose, nonmonotonic, risk assessment scientific integrity

Email this document to

This item references:

TitleLocation & LinkType of Relationship
An Extensive New Literature Concerning Low-Dose Effects of Bisphenol A Shows the Need for a New Risk Assessment described resource references, cites, or otherwise points to the related resource.