Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use In Kenyan Primary Schools

ASU Author/Contributor (non-ASU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Richard Rheingans Ph.D., Department Chair (Creator)
Appalachian State University (ASU )
Web Site: https://library.appstate.edu/

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils‘ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils‘ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils‘ use at specific facilities. We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98). Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.

Additional Information

Garn J, Caruso B, Drews-Botsch, Kramer M, Brumback B, Rheingans, Richard, Freeman M. 2014. Factors associated with pupil toilet use in Kenyan primary schools. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(9):9694-711. doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694. ISSN 1660-4601. Version of record available from http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/9/9694
Language: English
Date: 2014
sanitation, school sanitation, latrine use, toilet use, pupil to latrine ratio, pupil to toilet ratio, cleanliness, Kenya

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