Developing Mindfulness In College Students Through Movement-Based Courses: Effects On Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, And Sleep Quality

ASU Author/Contributor (non-ASU co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Marianne Adams MFA, Professor, Department Chair, Dance Coordinator (Creator)
Karen Caldwell Ph.D., Professor (Creator)
Mandy B. Harrison Ph.D., Assistant Professor (Creator)
Appalachian State University (ASU )
Web Site:

Abstract: Objective: This study examined whether mindfulness increased through participation in movement-based courses and whether changes in self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, and perceived stress mediated the relationship between increased mindfulness and better sleep. Participants: 166 college students enrolled in the 2007–2008 academic year in 15 week classes in Pilates, Taiji quan, or GYROKINESIS. Methods: At beginning, middle, and end of the semester, participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-regulatory self-efficacy, mood, perceived stress, and sleep quality. Results: Total mindfulness scores and mindfulness subscales increased overall. Greater changes in mindfulness were directly related to better sleep quality at the end of the semester after adjusting for sleep disturbance at the beginning. Tiredness, Negative Arousal, Relaxation, and Perceived Stress mediated the effect of increased mindfulness on improved sleep. Conclusions: Movement-based courses can increase mindfulness. Increased mindfulness accounts for changes in mood and perceived stress, which explain, in part, improved sleep quality.

Additional Information

Karen Caldwell PhD, Mandy Harrison PhD, Marianne Adams MFA, Rebecca H. Quin MA & Jeffrey Greeson PhD (2010). Developing Mindfulness in College Students Through Movement-Based Courses: Effects on Self-Regulatory Self-Efficacy, Mood, Stress, and Sleep Quality, Journal of American College Health, 58:5, 433-442, DOI: 10.1080/07448480903540481. Publisher version of record available at:
Language: English
Date: 2010
GYROKINESIS, mindfulness, mood, Pilates, sleep, stress, Taiji quan

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