Jeremy W. Bray

  • Professor and Department Head
  • Economics, UNCG
  • jwbray@uncg.edu
  • 336-334-3910
  • PO Box 26170
  • Greensboro NC 27402-6170

Jeremy Bray is Professor and Head of the Department of Economics in the Bryan School of Business and Economics at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research focuses on two primary areas of interest: the economics of substance abuse and mental health and the economic evaluation of behavioral health interventions. In his work on the economics of substance abuse and mental health, Dr. Bray has examined the labor market effects of substance use, abuse, and dependence and has studied the role of prices and taxes in consumers’ choices regarding alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. In his research on the cost-effectiveness of behavioral health interventions, Dr. Bray has estimated the costs and effectiveness of employee assistance program (EAP) services, screening and brief intervention (SBI) programs, behavioral and pharmacological therapies for alcohol dependence, and workplace prevention, early intervention, and wellness programs. Dr. Bray was the project director of the national, cross-site evaluation of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment’s (CSAT) Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. He is a principal investigator of the data and methodological coordinating center for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development’s Work, Family, and Health Network. Dr. Bray is an assistant editor for Addiction and has published his research findings in peer-reviewed journals, including Medical Care, Journal of Labor Economics, Journal of Health Economics, Labour Economics, Public Health Reports, Health Economics, and Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research.

There are 44 included publications by Jeremy W. Bray :

TitleDateViewsBrief Description
Alcohol drinking patterns and health care utilization in a managed care organization 2004 419 Objective. To estimate the relationship between current drinking patterns and health care utilization over the previous two years in a managed care organization (MCO) among individuals who were screened for their alcohol use.Study Design. Three prima...
Alcohol use and wages: New results from the national household survey on drug abuse 1998 1248 A recent study published in the Journal of Health Economics by French and Zarkin [French, M.T., Zarkin, G.A., 1995. Is moderate alcohol use related to wages? Evidence from four worksites, Journal of Health Economics 14, 319–344] found evidence of a p...
Alcohol Use, Human Capital, and Wages 2005 997 This article develops and estimates a model of wage determination that isolates the effects of alcohol use on wages as mediated through human capital accumulation. Although generally insignificant, estimation results suggest that moderate alcohol use...
Analyzing Data from Nonrandomized Group Studies 2008 489 Researchers evaluating prevention and early intervention programs must often rely on diverse study designs that assign groups to various study conditions (e.g., intervention versus control). Although the strongest designs randomly assign these groups...
Brief interventions for at-risk drinking: Patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness in managed care organizations 2006 321 Aims: Evaluate effectiveness and costs of brief interventions for patients screening positive for at-risk drinking in managed health care organizations (MCOs). Methods: A pre-post, quasi-experimental, multi-site evaluation conducted at 15 clinic site...
Conducting economic evaluations of screening and brief intervention for hazardous drinking: Methods and evidence to date for informing policy 2010 319 Issues. Many policy review articles have concluded that alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is both cost-effective and cost-beneficial. Yet a recent cost-effectiveness review for the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clini...
Correlates of In-Store Promotions for Beer: Differential Effects of Market and Product Characteristics 2007 249 Objective: We estimated the strength and direction of the association between product characteristics (beer type, package size, and brand name) and market-area socioeconomic characteristics, and promoted sales of beer in grocery stores. Method: Super...
Cost and Cost-effectiveness of the COMBINE Study in Alcohol-Dependent Patients 2008 469 The COMBINE (Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Intervention) clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of medications, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The costs and cost-ef...
Cost methodology of COMBINE 2005 404 Objective: This article describes the methodology used in estimating the mean cost per patient of the interventions delivered in COMBINE, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for outpatient trea...
The Cost of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) 1996 1420 Despite the increasing prevalence of Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs), few studies have examined the cost of these programs. This paper presents consistent and comparable cost data from case studies of EAPs at seven worksites. Because the same dat...
Cost of employee assistance programs: Comparisons of national estimates from 1993 and 1995 1999 350 The cost and financing of mental health services is gaining increasing importance with the spread of managed care and cost-cutting measures throughout the health care system. The delivery of mental health services through structured employee assistan...
The cost of screening and brief intervention in employee assistance programs 2012 433 Few studies examine the costs of conducting screening and brief intervention (SBI) in settings outside health care. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the employer-incurred costs of SBI in an employee assistance program (EAP) whe...
Cost to conduct screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in healthcare settings 2013 268 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
The Cost-Effectiveness of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) in Emergency and Outpatient Medical Settings 2015 591 ObjectiveThis study analyzed the cost-effectiveness of delivering alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) in emergency departments (ED) when compared to outpatient medical settings.MethodsA probabilistic decision anal...
The costs of screening and brief intervention for risky alcohol use 2003 294 Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate provider-incurred costs of alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) for risky drinking as implemented in four managed care organizations (MCOs) participating in the Cutting Back project imple...
The differential effects of alcohol consumption and dependence on adverse alcohol-related consequences: Implications for the workforce. 1998 425 Previous literature has supported the hypothesis that high rates of alcohol consumption are associated with adverse social consequences and that dependence on alcohol has an effect on that relationship. The purpose of this paper is to further specify...
Do Treatment Services for Drug Users in Outpatient Drug-Free Treatment Programs Affect Employment and Crime? 2007 395 Using the 1992–1995 National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study data, we employ principal components analysis to create treatment service factors based on both patient self-reports and treatment record extracts. We included these factors in multi...
Economic evaluation of alcoholism treatment 2006 303 Rising health care costs in recent years have increased pressures on providers, insurers, and policymakers to monitor the costs, cost-effectiveness, and cost–benefit of all health care services, including alcohol-related services. Without solid infor...
The effect of Employee Assistance Programs use on healthcare utilization 2000 559 Objective. To estimate the effect of Employee Assistance Program (EAP) use on healthcare utilization as measured by health claims. Data Sources. A unique data set that combines individual-level information on EAP utilization, demographic information,...
The effect of an enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention on EAP utilization 2001 396 Objective: An enhanced employee assistance program (EAP) intervention was developed that delivers comprehensive EAP outreach services to all employees who may have alcohol-related and other workplace problems; standard EAP materials traditionally tar...
The effect of treatment completion and length of stay on employment and crime in outpatient drug-free treatment 2002 380 Length of stay in treatment has been found to be a significant predictor of positive post-treatment outcomes, such as decreases in unemployment and crime. However, length of stay may be an incomplete predictor of successful treatment. Surprisingly, f...
The effects of prices and policies on the demand for marijuana: Evidence from the national household surveys on drug abuse 1999 799 Recent studies have shown that efforts to curb alcohol use by increasing the price of alcohol and limiting youth's access have succeeded, but they may have had the unintended consequence of increasing marijuana use. This possibility is troubling in l...
Evaluating web-based training for employee assistance program counselors on the use of screening and brief intervention for at-risk alcohol use 2009 371 This article assesses a Web-based training for Employee Assistance Program (EAP) counselors on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for at-risk alcohol use. The training had four learning objectives: (1) increase counselors' awareness and sense of ...
Healthcare Utilization of Individuals with Opiate Use Disorders: An Analysis of Integrated Medicaid and State Mental Health/Substance Abuse Agency Data 2008 374 Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s Integrated Database (IDB) were used to examine the service use patterns of individuals with possible opiate use disorders in Washington State. Results indicate that regardless ...
Implementation costs of screening and brief intervention for illicit drug use 2013 272 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
The joint demand for cigarettes and marijuana: Evidence from the national household surveys on drug abuse 2001 896 Recent studies have shown that efforts to curb youths’ alcohol use, such as increasing the price of alcohol or limiting youths’ access, have succeeded but may have had the unintended consequence of increasing marijuana use. This possibility is troubl...
Latent variable models of alcohol-related constructs 1996 345 This study examines the improvement in validity coefficients and structural relationships derived from formally modeling latent variables of adverse alcohol-related constructs. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis of responses from 8, 755 partic...
Measuring economic outcomes of alcohol treatment using the economic form 90 2007 460 Objective: This article assesses the ability of the economic outcome measures in the Economic Form 90 to detect differences across levels of alcohol dependence as measured by the Alcohol Dependence Scale. Method: We used baseline data from the Combin...
Mental health and substance abuse treatment utilization among individuals served by multiple public agencies in three states 2005 250 Patterns of mental health (MH) and substance abuse (SA) treatment utilization among populations receiving services through multiple public programs are not well known. This study examines to what extent populations with MH and/or SA conditions utiliz...
A multinomial logit analysis of the influence of policy variables and board experience on FOMC voting behavior 1997 591 Previous studies have used probit or logit models to analyze two states of monetary policy (tighter or looser). In this paper we employ multinominal logit to permit Federal Reserve monetary policy to assume one of three alternative states (tighter, l...
Prevalence and consequences of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use at five worksites 1995 288 EMPLOYERS ARE BECOMING increasingly concerned about the consequences and costs of substance use in their workplaces. Despite this heightened awareness, little information is available to guide them in setting up worksite-based prevention and assistan...
Prevalence and Costs of Major Depression Among Elderly Claimants With Diabetes 2003 458 OBJECTIVE—To compare the odds of major depression among Medicare claimants with and without diabetes and to test whether annual medical payments are greater for those with both diabetes and major depression than for those with diabetes alone. RESEARC...
Program-and service-level costs of seven screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment programs 2014 301 This paper examines the costs of delivering screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) services within the first seven demonstration programs funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Service-le...
The relationship between drug use and labor supply for young men 1998 459 This paper examines the relationship between young men's hours worked and their use of marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes, cocaine, and other drugs using cross-section data from the 1991 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA), a nationally repre...
The relationship between marijuana initiation and dropping out of high school 2000 4137 The prevalence of marijuana use among young people has risen rapidly in recent years, causing concern over the potential impact on academic performance of such use. While recent studies have examined the effect of alcohol use on educational attainmen...
The response by adults to increases in cigarette prices by sociodemographic characteristics 2001 1183 Cigarette excise taxes are widely viewed by health economists as an effective tool to reduce cigarette consumption. However, those opposed to increasing cigarette excise taxes often state that the taxes unfairly target certain segments of the populat...
Response to increases in cigarette prices by race/ethnicity, income, and age groups—United States, 1976–1993 1998 573 No abstract provided.
Return on Investment of a Work–Family Intervention: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Network 2015 381 Objective: To estimate the return on investment (ROI) of a workplace initiative to reduce work–family conflict in a group-randomized 18-month field experiment in an information technology firm in the United States.Methods: Intervention resources were...
Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Toward a Public Health Approach to the Management of Substance Abuse 2007 943 Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive and integrated approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services through universal screening for persons with substance use disorders and those at...
Symptoms of dependence, multiple substance use, and labor market outcomes 2000 413 The prevalence and costs of alcohol and drug disorders pose a serious social concern for policymakers. In this paper, we use data from the National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) to estimate simple descriptive statistics and analysis of vari...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of health care utilization outcomes in alcohol screening and brief intervention trials 2011 369 Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effect of screening and brief intervention (SBI) on outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient health care utilization outcomes. Much of the current literature speculates that...
A time-in-motion study of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) implementation in healthcare settings 2013 240 From International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INEBRIA) Meeting 2013 Rome, Italy. 18-20 September 2013.
Treatment patterns and distribution of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in treatment-eligible U.S. adults 1998 649 To estimate the fraction of United States (U.S.) adults who are eligible for treatment to reduce elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels based on Adult Treatment Panel II (ATP II) guidelines and the percent reduction in LDL choleste...
You save money when you buy in bulk: Does volume-based pricing cause people to buy more beer? 2009 575 This paper uses supermarket scanner data to estimate brand- and packaging-specific own- and cross-price elasticities for beer. We find that brand- and packaging-specific beer sales are highly price elastic. Cross-price elasticity estimates suggest th...