Self-focus and distraction models of choking domain applicability: impact of neutral pressure on dominant and non-dominant execution of sensory motor skills in experienced performers OR Choking in highly experienced soccer players

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
Efferman Ezell (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Advisor
Jennifer Etnier

Abstract: **Note: Student's work has two different titles: 1) Self-focus and distraction models of choking domain applicability: impact of neutral pressure on dominant and non-dominant execution of sensory motor skills in experienced performers 2)Choking in highly experienced soccer players. Performers choke under pressure due to an increase in anxiety under perceived pressure at a time when the outcome of a competition has not been decided. Research findings have led to the development of the distraction and self-focus models of choking. Researchers have suggested that instead of both models acting as alternative explanations of choking, they may both be applicable explanations in different domains, depending on the individual's skill level with the task. Findings have shown that novices experience decrements in performance that are best explained by distraction models, while experienced performers experience decrements in performance best explained by self-focus models. Further examination is needed on the role of experience in choking. This study examined the differences between the dominant and non-dominant features of skill-execution within an experienced performer. Participants performed a soccer-dribbling task under three practice conditions: single-task (only perform the dribbling task), dual-task (perform the dribbling task and a secondary auditory-word-monitoring task), skill-focus (perform the dribbling task while attending to the part of their foot touching the ball). They then performed a single-task posttest where performers performed the soccer-dribbling task under pressure. The order of the first three conditions was counterbalanced to prevent order effects. In the practice trials, it was hypothesized that performance would be fastest with the dominant foot under dual task conditions and fastest with the non-dominant foot under skill-focus conditions. If decrements are observed for the dominant foot when performing under pressure, these would be attributed to self-consciousness leading them to explicitly monitor skill execution. If decrements are observed for the non-dominant foot when performing under pressure, these would be attributed to attention being paid to irrelevant cues, distracting them. If decrements are not observed for the non-dominant foot, this would be attributed to pressure invoking self-consciousness, leading them to explicitly monitor skill execution, and helping their less-skillful performance.

Additional Information

Publication
Thesis
Language: English
Date: 2012
Keywords
Anxiety, Distraction model of choking, Self-focus model of choking
Subjects
Sports $x Psychological aspects
Soccer players $x Psychology
Anxiety