An analysis of factors contributing to sixth-grade students' selective attention to music elements: melodic contour, timbre, rhythm, and tempo; and variables associated with demographics, self-perception, music background, music genre, and temporal difference.

UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document)
James Alex Warner (Creator)
Institution
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNCG )
Web Site: http://library.uncg.edu/
Advisor
David Teachout

Abstract: Two research questions were formulated for the present study: (1) Are there significant differences (p < .05) among sixth-grade participants’ selective attention to music elements as affected by variables associated with music genre and temporal difference?; and (2) To what extent do the following variables significantly predict (p < .05) sixth-grade participants’ selective attention to melodic contour, timbre, rhythm, and tempo: demographics, self-perception, music background, music genre, and temporal difference? Subjects (N = 87), suburban middle school students from the sixth-grade level within Fulton County Public Schools of Atlanta, Georgia completed the Music Background Questionnaire II, Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA), and the Music Element Profile (MEP). The first research question was analyzed using a Three-Way Repeated Analysis of Variance. Regarding differences among selective attention to music elements, participants rated rhythm (M = 5.15) significantly higher (p < .01) than melodic contour (M = 4.74), timbre (M = 4.87), or tempo (M = 4.82). Regarding differences among music genre, participants rated rhythm and blues (M = 5.12) significantly higher than jazz (M = 4.83; p < .05) or classical (M = 4.66; p < .01); participants rated rock (M = 4.98) significantly higher (p < .01) than classical (M = 4.66). Regarding differences between fast and slow tempi, participants did not rate fast tempi (M = 4.94) significantly differently than slow tempos (M = 4.86). A significant two-way interaction effect (p < .05) was found among participants’ selective attention for music elements by genre (p = .006). A significant two-way interaction effect (p < .05) was found among sixth-grade students’ selective attention for music elements by temporal difference (p = .002). A significant two-way interaction effect (p < .05) was found among sixth-grade students’ ratings for music genre by temporal difference (p = .000). No significant three-way interaction effects (p < .05) were found among sixth-grade students’ selective attention for music elements by ratings for music genre and temporal difference. Data from the MEP, MBQII, SPPA, and from the demographic information were analyzed in four multiple regression procedures, each placing a different music element as the dependent variable. Classical and rock were found to be the best predictors (p < .001) of melodic contour. Fast tempi were found to be the best predictor (p < .001) of timbre. Classical, rock, rhythm and blues, jazz, and fast tempi were found to be the best predictors (p < .05) of rhythm. Jazz and fast tempi were found to be the best predictors (p < .05) of tempo. From the results of the data analysis of both research questions, conclusions were drawn to provide suggestions for future research.

Additional Information

Publication
Dissertation
Language: English
Date: 2009
Keywords
Music Elements, Music Genre, Perception, Selective Attention, Self Perception, Temporal Difference
Subjects
Music $x Instruction and study $x Education (Middle school)
Middle school students $x Attitudes.
Selectivity (Psychology)
Musical perception.
Attention.